Meetings with Robert E. Lee,
9 and 10 April 1865
I had known General Lee in the old army, and had
served with him in the Mexican War; but did not suppose, owing to the difference
in our age and rank, that he would remember me; while I would more naturally
remember him distinctly, because he was the chief of staff of General Scott
in the Mexican War.
When I had left camp that morning I had not expected
so soon the result that was then taking place, and consequently was in
rough garb. I was without a sword, as I usually was when on horseback
on the field, and wore a soldier's blouse for a coat, with the shoulder
straps of my rank to indicate to the army who I was. When I went
into the house I found General Lee. We greeted each other, and after shaking
hands took our seats. I had my staff with me, a good portion of whom
were in the room during the whole of the interview.
What General Lee's feelings were I do not know.
As he was a man of much dignity, with an impassable face, it was impossible
to say whether he felt inwardly glad that the end had finally come, or
felt sad over the result, and was too manly to show it. Whatever
his feelings, they were entirely concealed from my observation; but my
own feelings, which had been quite jubilant on the receipt of his letter
[proposing negotiations], were sad and depressed. I felt like anything
rather than rejoicing at the downfall of a foe who had fought so long and
valiantly, and had suffered so much for a cause, though that cause was,
I believe, one of the worst for which a people ever fought, and one for
which there was the least excuse. I do not question, however, the
sincerity of the great mass of those who were opposed to us.
General Lee was dressed in a full uniform which
was entirely new, and was wearing a sword of considerable value, very likely
the sword which had been presented by the State of Virginia; at all events,
it was an entirely different sword from the one that would ordinarily be
worn in the field. In my rough traveling suit, the uniform of a private
with the straps of a lieutenant-general, I must have contrasted very strangely
with a man so handsomely dressed, six feet high and of faultless form.
But this was not a matter that I thought of until afterwards.
We soon fell into a conversation about old army
times. He remarked that he remembered me very well in the old army;
and I told him that as a matter of course I remembered him perfectly, but
from the difference in our rank and years (there being about sixteen years'
difference in our ages), I had thought it very likely that I had not attracted
his attention sufficiently to be remembered by him after such a long interval.
Our conversation grew so pleasant that I almost forgot the object of our
meeting. After the conversation had run on in this style for some
time, General Lee called my attention to the object of our meeting, and
said that he had asked for this interview for the purpose of getting from
me the terms I proposed to give his army. I said I meant merely that
his army should lay down their arms, not to take them up again during the
continuance of the war unless duly and properly exchanged. He said
that he had so understood my letter.
Then we gradually fell off again into conversation
about matters foreign to the subject which had brought us together.
This continued for some little time, when General Lee again interrupted
the course of the conversation by suggesting that the terms I proposed
to give his army ought to be written out. I called to General [Ely
S.] Parker, secretary on my staff, for writing materials, and commenced
writing out the following terms:
Appomattox C. H., Va.,
Ap'l 9th, 1865
Gen. R. E. Lee,
Comd'g C. S. A.
In accordance with the substance of my letter
to you of the 8th inst., I propose to receive the surrender
of the Army of N. Va. on the following terms, to wit: Rolls of all
the officers and men to be made in duplicate.
One copy to be given to an officer designated by me, the other to
be retained by such officer or officers as you may designate. The
officers to give their individual paroles not to take up arms against the
Government of the United States until properly exchanged, and each company
or regimental commander sign a like parole for the men of their commands.
The arms, artillery and public property to be parked and stacked, and turned
over to the officer appointed by me to receive them. This will not
embrace the side-arms of the officers, nor their private horses or baggage. This done, each officer and man will be allowed to return to their homes, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside.
When I put my pen to the paper I did not know the
first word that I should make use of in writing the terms. I only
knew what was in my mind, and I wished to express it clearly, so that there
could be no mistaking it. As I wrote on, the thought occurred to
me that the officers had their own private horses and effects, which were
important to them, but of no value to us; also that it would be an unnecessary
humiliation to call upon them to deliver their side arms.
No conversation, not one word, passed between
General Lee and myself, either about private property, side arms, or kindred
subjects. He appeared to have no objections to the terms first proposed;
or if he had a point to make against them he wished to wait until they
were in writing to make it. When he read over that part of the terms
about side arms, horses and private property of the officers, he remarked,
with some feeling, I thought, that this would have a happy effect upon
Then, after a little further conversation, General
Lee remarked to me again that their army was organized a little differently
from the army of the United States (still maintaining by implication that
we were two countries); that in their army the cavalrymen and artillerists
owned their own horses; and he asked if he was to understand that the men
who so owned their horses were to be permitted to retain them. I
told him that as the terms were written they would not; that only the officers
were permitted to take their private property. He then, after reading
over the terms a second time, remarked that that was clear.
I then said to him that I thought this would be
about the last battle of the war -- I sincerely hoped so; and I said further
I took it that most of the men in the ranks were small farmers. The
whole country had been so raided by the two armies that it was doubtful
whether they would be able to put in a crop to carry themselves and their
families through the next winter without the aid of the horses they were
then riding. The United States did not want them and I would, therefore,
instruct the officers I left behind to receive the paroles of his troops
to let every man of the Confederate army who claimed to own a horse or
mule take the animal to his home. Lee remarked again that this would
have a happy effect.
He then sat down and wrote out the following letter:
Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia,
April 9, 1865
General U. S. Grant.
--I received your letter of this date containing the terms of the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia as proposed by you.
As they are substantially the same as those expressed in your letter of the 8th inst., they are accepted. I will proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the stipulations into effect.
R. E. Lee,
While duplicates of the two letters were being made,
the Union generals present were severally presented to General Lee.
The much talked of surrendering of Lee's sword and my handing it back, this and much more that has been said about it is the purest romance. The word sword or side arms was not mentioned by either of us until I wrote it in the terms. There was no premeditation, and it did not occur to me until the moment I wrote it down. If I had happened to omit it, and General Lee had called my attention to it,
I should have put it in the terms precisely as I acceded to the provision
about the soldiers retaining their horses.
General Lee, after all was completed and before taking his leave, remarked that his army was in a very bad condition for want of food, and that they were without forage; that his men had been living for some days on parched corn exclusively, and that he would have to ask me for rations and forage. I told him "certainly," and asked
for how many men he wanted rations. His answer was "about twenty-five
thousand": and I authorized him to send his own commissary and quartermaster
to Appomattox Station, two or three miles away, where he could have, out
of the trains we had stopped, all the provisions wanted. As for forage,
we had ourselves depended almost entirely upon the country for that.
Generals Gibbon, Griffin and Merritt were designated by me to carry into effect the paroling of Lee's troops before they should start for their homes -- General Lee leaving Generals Longstreet, Gordon and Pendleton for them to confer with in order to facilitate this work. Lee and I then separated as cordially as we had met, he returning to his own lines, and all went into bivouac for the night at Appomattox.
Soon after Lee's departure I telegraphed to Washington as follows:
Headquarters Appomattox C. H., Va.,
April 9th, 1865, 4:30 p.m.
Hon. E. M. Stanton:
Secretary of War,
General Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia this afternoon on terms proposed by myself. The accompanying additional correspondence will show the conditions fully.
U. S. Grant,
When news of the surrender first reached our lines
our men commenced firing a salute of a hundred guns in honor of the victory. I at once sent word, however, to have it stopped. The Confederates were now our prisoners, and we did not want to exult over their downfall.
I determined to return to Washington at once, with a view to putting a stop to the purchase of supplies, and what I now deemed other useless outlay of money. Before leaving, however, I thought I would like to see General Lee again; so next morning I rode out beyond our lines towards his headquarters, preceded by a bugler and a staff-officer carrying a white flag.
Lee soon mounted his horse, seeing who it was, and met me. We had there between the lines, sitting on horseback, a very pleasant conversation of over half an hour, in the course of which Lee said to me that the South was a big country and that we might have to march over it three or four times before the war entirely ended, but
that we would now be able to do it as they could no longer resist us.
He expressed it as his earnest hope, however, that we would not be called
upon to cause more loss and sacrifice of life; but he could not foretell
the result. I then suggested to General Lee that there was not a
man in the Confederacy whose influence with the soldiery and the whole
people was as great as his, and that if he would now advise the surrender
of all armies I had no doubt his advice would be followed with alacrity.
But Lee said, that he could not do that without consulting the President
first. I knew there was no use to urge him to do anything against
his ideas of what was right.
I was accompanied by my staff and other officers, some of whom seemed to have a great desire to go inside the Confederate lines. They finally asked permission of Lee to do so for the purpose of seeing some of their old army friends, and the permission was granted. They went over, had a very pleasant time with their old friends, and brought some of them back with them when they returned.
When Lee and I separated he went back to his lines and I returned to the house of Mr. McLean. Here the officers of both armies came in great numbers, and seemed to enjoy the meeting as much as though they had been friends separated for a long time while fighting battles under the same flag. For the time being it looked very much as if all thought of the war had escaped their minds. After an hour pleasantly passed in this way I set out on horseback, accompanied by my staff and
a small escort, for Burkesville Junction, up to which point the railroad had by this time been repaired.
From: Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant (New York, 1885), pages 555-560.
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